Advanced sass

Estimated reading time: 7 minutes

Embrace Placeholders

Sass supports a special type of selector called a “placeholder selector”. These look like class and id selectors, except the # or . is replaced by %.

%foo represent Placeholders selector . and then @extend

Lists

Lists are the Sass equivalent of arrays, which we can find almost any programming language. They are a data structure containing one or several values, possibly including lists, leading to nested lists. but sass list start from 1 / non-zero ..

https://www.sitepoint.com/sass-reference/lists/

  • List Delimiters : Two Delimiters space or comma.
$list: 'foo' 'bar';
$type: type-of($list); // list
$separator: list-separator($list); // space

$list: 'foo', 'bar';
$type: type-of($list); // list
$separator: list-separator($list); // comma
$item: nth($list, 1); // 'foo'
$count: length($list); // 0
$list: append($list, 'test'); // ('foo' 'bar' 'test')
$list: join('test', $list, 'comma'); // ('test', 'foo' 'bar');

@function

It is possible to define your own functions in sass and use them in any value or script context

$grid-width: 40px;
$gutter-width: 10px;

@function grid-width($n) {
  @return $n * $grid-width + ($n - 1) * $gutter-width;
}

#sidebar { width: grid-width(5); }

Becomes:

#sidebar {
  width: 240px; }

@if/@else

The @if directive takes a SassScript expression and uses the styles nested beneath it if the expression returns anything other than false or null:

$type: monster;
p {
  @if $type == ocean {
    color: blue;
  } @else if $type == matador {
    color: red;
  } @else if $type == monster {
    color: green;
  } @else {
    color: black;
  }
}

@for

The @for directive repeatedly outputs a set of styles. For each repetition, a counter variable is used to adjust the output. The directive has two forms: @for $var from <start> through <end> and @for $var from to . Note the difference in the keywords through and to. `$var` can be any variable name, like $i; and are SassScript expressions that should return integers. When is greater than the counter will decrement instead of increment.

The @for statement sets $var to each successive number in the specified range and each time outputs the nested styles using that value of $var. For the form from … through, the range includes the values of and , but the form `from ... to` runs up to but not including the value of . Using the through syntax,

@for $i from 1 through 3 {
  .item-#{$i} { width: 2em * $i; }
}

is compiled to:

.item-1 {
  width: 2em; }
.item-2 {
  width: 4em; }
.item-3 {
  width: 6em; }

@each

The @each directive usually has the form @each $var in . $var can be any variable name, like $length or `$name`, and` `is a SassScript expression that returns a list or a map.

The @each rule sets $var to each item in the list or map, then outputs the styles it contains using that value of $var. For example:

@each $animal in puma, sea-slug, egret, salamander {
  .#{$animal}-icon {
    background-image: url('/images/#{$animal}.png');
  }
}

is compiled to:

.puma-icon {
  background-image: url('/images/puma.png'); }
.sea-slug-icon {
  background-image: url('/images/sea-slug.png'); }
.egret-icon {
  background-image: url('/images/egret.png'); }
.salamander-icon {
  background-image: url('/images/salamander.png'); }

@content

@mixin button() {
    display: block;
    font-size: 20px;
    text-decoration: none;
    @content;
}

.alert {
    @include button {
        color: #F00;
    }
}
.cancel {
    @include button {
        border: solid 1px #999;
    }   
}

output:

.alert {
    display: block;
    font-size: 20px;
    text-decoration: none;
    color: #F00;
}
.cancel {
    display: block;
    font-size: 20px;
    text-decoration: none;
    border: solid 1px #999;
}

Maps

key and value

$map: (key1: value1, key2: value2, key3: value3);

/* Define the Sassy Map called $icons */
$icons: (
  checkmark: a,
  plus: b,
  minus: c
);

/* For each key in the map, created an own class */
@each $name, $value in $icons {
  .icon--#{$name} {
    content: $value;
  }
}

output

/* Define the Sassy Map called $icons */
/* For each key in the map, created an own class */
.icon--checkmark {
  content: a;
}

.icon--plus {
  content: b;
}

.icon--minus {
  content: c;
}
  • multiple map
// _m-buttons.scss
$buttons: (
  error: (#d82d2d, #666),
  success: (#52bf4a, #fff),
  warning: (#c23435, #fff)
);

.m-button {
  display: inline-block;
  padding: .5em;
  background: #ccc;
  color: #666;

  @each $name, $colors in $buttons {
    $bgcolor: nth($colors, 1);
    $fontcolor: nth($colors, 2);

    &--#{$name} {
      background-color: $bgcolor;
      color: $fontcolor;
    }  
  }
}

output

.m-button {
  display: inline-block;
  padding: .5em;
  background: #ccc;
  color: #666;
}
.m-button--error {
  background-color: #d82d2d;
  color: #666;
}
.m-button--success {
  background-color: #52bf4a;
  color: #fff;
}
.m-button--warning {
  background-color: #c23435;
  color: #fff;
}

Comments

Sass supports standard multiline CSS comments with /* Multi comment */, as well as single-line comments with //single comment .

css, sass, scss, ui, ux